Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Habitat for Humanity Essay Example for Free

Habitat for Humanity Essay Habitat for Humanity originated at Koinonia Farm, which is a small Christian farming community located outside of Americus, Georgia. Clarence Jordan brought the idea to Millard Fuller, who is the founder and president of Habitat for Humanity International. They developed the idea of â€Å"partnership housing,† calling for families in need of a home to partner with volunteers to build affordable homes. In 1975 Fuller and his wife Linda established Habitat for Humanity with one clear vision in mind â€Å"a world where everyone has a decent place to live. † Habitats ministry is based on the conviction that to follow the teachings of Jesus Christ we must reflect Christs love in our own lives by loving and caring for one another. Our love must not be words only – it must be true love, which shows itself in action, this is the full forces that lead Fuller and his wife to establish this organization. Habitat provides an opportunity for people to put their faith and love into action, bringing diverse groups of people together to make affordable housing and better communities a reality for everyone. The idea of Habitat for Humanity is to work in partnership with God and people to build decent, affordable, houses in which people can live and grow into all what God has intended. The Fuller’s vision has become a successful reality that has presently helped build over 500,000 homes and helped over 2.5 million people worldwide. Habitat for humanity is operated based on two main sources: donations and mortgage payments of the homeowners. Donations generate from individuals, foundations, and businesses their monies are used to purchase land and materials. The no-interest mortgage payments made by current Habitat homeowners greatly contribute to support the construction of additional Habitat homes. Some organizations such as Ameri-Corp may pay their volunteers with school courses and materials in return for their time. Habitat for Humanity’s crucial point is not just to build a house and help people to be under a roof, but their main goal is to build a clean, decent, and stable house for families: these families can provide stability to their children, the sense of dignity and pride grows for these families; health, physical safety, and security improves, educational and job prospects. My experience at Habitat for Humanity was a powerful and passionate one. Amazingly, one of the most precious gifts we can give one another is – time. A couple of hours or days can translate into a lifetime of hopefulness and commitment to strive and I had the opportunity to experience this reality, throughout my experience at the Habitat. I have learned what the meaning of passion is mainly because I’ve had the genuine sentiment to finish the work I’ve started, along with many other people that shared this experience with me. The other thing that I discovered about passion is how easy it is to be a family with people you have met for the first time if you open your heart to them and let them be part of your life. The other thing I found about passion is the skills that I have that would help to repair the universe. In this experience I found something that has deepened my faith that God created each one of us uniquely with specific skills that not everybody has; therefore, this experience helped me to find skills that I am going to use to help building the world again with passion and also the experience and realize that the simple usage of my hands can a the life of a family. The people that I met at Habitat for Humanity were dedicated to their jobs. As I approached the job site, I noticed several groups of people who were putting their time and organization into this home-building project. They invested hundreds of hours of sweat into building houses to help low income families. Some days, community volunteers spend more than eight hours working on the houses. To complete their jobs, volunteers overcame obstacles such as: lack of supplies, unusable wood, and lack of enough workers. The employees and volunteers I met were motivated to overcome obstacles to help families in need. Though they may not have had the best materials, they used what they had in order to complete the job. Many of these materials come from the Re-Store; this store sells donations mostly given by the community. The funds collected are used for materials and other services that are required. Volunteers must be willing to work in the heat and endure a lot of intense physical labor. Wall-framing, installing dry wall, plumbing and roofing are skills that the organization needs from volunteers. The volunteers I worked with were willing to endure the heat and physical labor in order to help low income families who need a home. If you are looking for a place where you can make a huge impact on society, Habitat for Humanity is the place. People of all backgrounds, races, and religions are invited to build houses for people in our community. Habitat for Humanity is capable of working with each volunteer’s skill level. Don’t be afraid of hard work. No matter what goes on in your life, you will always remember all of the positive things you have done to help out in your community. In conclusion, Habitat for Humanity does such essential work and by that work they recognize the concept of passion and Christianity, and the other thing about them is they recognize that there are needs in the world and these needs should be met with their work. My experience helped me change my idea about service and the real meaning of service, and it let me be familiar with the big three R’s- restoration, reparation, and reconciliation that are the keys for service. The three R’s were spoken among many of the volunteers that I met, indeed the R’s simply describe this experience, the other thing I found is that dedicating myself is another important part of service because without dedicating myself, the work that we need to do to repair the universe would not be as perfect as how it should be.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Higher Quality Input Phrase To Driven Reverse Dictionary

Higher Quality Input Phrase To Driven Reverse Dictionary Implementing a Higher Quality Input Phrase To Driven Reverse Dictionary E.Kamalanathan  and C.Sunitha Ram ABSTRACT Implementing a higher quality input phrase to driven reverse wordbook. In contrast to a conventional forward wordbook, that map from word to their definitions, a reverse wordbook takes a user input phrase describing the specified construct, and returns a group of candidate words that satisfy the input phrase. This work has important application not just for the final public, notably those that work closely with words, however conjointly within the general field of abstract search. The current a group of algorithms and therefore the results of a group of experiments showing the retrieval accuracy and therefore the runtime latency performance is implementation. The experimental results show that, approach will offer important enhancements in performance scale while not sacrificing the standard of the result. Experiments scrutiny the standard of approach to it of presently on the market reverse dictionaries show that the approach will offer considerably higher quality over either of the opposite presently on the market implementations. Index Terms : Dictionaries, thesauruses, search process, web-based services. . INTRODUCTION A Report work on creating a reverse dictionary, As against a regular (forward) wordbook that maps words to their definitions, a WD performs the converse mapping, i.e., given a phrase describing the required conception, it provides words whose definitions match the entered definition phrase. It’s relevant to language understanding. The approach has a number of the characteristics expected from a strong language understanding system. Firstly, learning solely depends on unannoted text information, which is abundant and contain the individual bias of an observer. Secondly, the approach is predicated on all-purpose resources (Brill’s PoS Tagger, WordNet [7]), and also the performance is studied below negative (hence additional realistic) assumptions, e.g., that the tagger is trained on a regular dataset with doubtless totally different properties from the documents to be clustered. Similarly, the approach studies the potential advantages of victimization all potential senses (and hypernyms) from WordNet, in an endeavor to defer (or avoid altogether) the necessity for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), and also the connected pitfalls of a WSD tool which can be biased towards a particular domain or language vogue BACKGROUND WORK Natural Language Processing: Natural Language Processing (NLP) [6] is a large field which encompasses a lot of categories that are related to this thesis. Specifically NLP is the process of computationally extracting meaningful information of natural languages. In other words: the ability for a computer to interpret the expressive power of natural language. Subcategories of NLP which are relevant for this thesis are presented below. WordNet: WordNet [7], [2]is a large lexical database containing the words of the English language. It resembles the traits of a thesaurus in that it structures words that have similar meaning together. WordNet is something more, since it also specifies different connections for each of the senses of a given word. These connections place words that are semantically related close to one another in a network. WordNet also displays some quality of a dictionary, since it describes the definition of words and their corresponding part-of-speech. Synonym relation is the main connection between words, which means that words which are conceptually equivalent, and thus interchangeable in most contexts, are grouped together. These groupings are called synsets and consist of a definition and relations to other synsets. A word can be part of more than one synset, since it can bear more than one meaning. WordNet has a total of 117 000 synsets, which are linked together. Not all synsets have a distinct path to another synset. This is the case, since the data structure in WordNet is split into four different groups; nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs (since they follow different rules of grammar). Thus it is not possible to compare words in different groups, unless all groups are linked together with a common entity. There are some exceptions which links synsets cross part-of-speech in WordNet, but these are rare. It is not always possible to find a relation between two words within a group, since each group are made of different ba se types. The relations that connect the synsets within the different groups vary based on the type of the synsets. Application Programming Interface Several Application Programming Interfaces (API) exists for WordNet. These allow easy access to the platform and often additional functionality. As an example of this the Java WordNet Library [8] (JWNL) can be mentioned. This allows for access to the WordNet Library files. PoS Tagging PoS tags[8] are assigned to the corpus using Brill’s PoS tagger. As PoS tagging require the words to be in their original order this is done before any other modifications on the corpora. Part-of-speech (POS) tagging is the field which is concerned with analysing a text and assigning different grammatical roles to each entity. These roles are based on the definition of the particular word and the context in which it is written. Words that are in close proximity of each other often affect and assign meaning to each other. The POS taggers job is to assign grammatical roles such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. based upon these relations. The tagging of POS is important in information retrieval in general text processing. This is the case since natural languages contain a lot of ambiguity, which can make distinguishing words/terms difficult. There are two main schools when tagging POS. These are rule-based and stochastic. Examples of the two are Brill’s tagger and Stanford POS tagger, respectively. Rule-based taggers work by applying the most used POS for a given word. Predefined/lexical rules are then applied to the structure for error analysis. Errors are corrected until a satisfying threshold is reached. Stochastic taggers use a trained corpus to determine the POS of a given word. Stopword Removal Stopwords, i.e. words thought not to convey any meaning, are removed from the text. The approach taken in this work does not compile a static list of stopwords, as usually done. Instead PoS information is browbeaten and all tokens that are not nouns, verbs or adjectives are removed. Stop words are words which occur often in text and speech. They do not tell much about the content they are wrapped in, but helps humans understand and interpret the residue of the content. These terms are so generic that they do not mean anything by themselves. In the context of text processing they are basically just empty words, which only takes up space, increases computational time and affects the similarity measure in a way which is not relevant. This can result in false positives. Table: 1 List of Stop words This class includes only one method; which runs through a list of words and removes all occurrences of words specified in a file. A text file, which specifies the stop words, is loaded into the program. This file is called â€Å"stop-words.txt† and is located at the home directory of the program. The text file can be edited such that it only contains the desired stop words. A representation of the stop words used in the text file can be found in table 1. After the list of stop words has been loaded, it is compared to the words in the given list. If a match is found the given word in the list is removed. A list, exposed from stop words, is then returned. Stemming Words with the same meaning appear in various morphological forms. To capture their similarity they are normalised into a common root-form, the stem. The morphology function provided with WordNet is used for stemming, because it only yields stems that are contained in the WordNet dictionary. This class contains five methods; one for converting a list of words into a string, two for stemming a list of words and two for handling the access to WordNet through the JWNL API[8]. The first method listToString() takes an ArrayList of strings and concatenate these into a string representation. The second method stringStemmer() takes an ArrayList of strings and iterates through each word, stemming these by calling the private method wordStemmer(). This method checks if the JWNL API has been loaded and starts stemming by looking up the lemma of a word in WordNet. Before this is done, each word starting with an uppercase letter is checked to see if it can be used as a noun. If the word can be used as a noun, it does not qualify for stemming and is returned in its original form. The lemma lookup is done by using a morphological processor, which is provided by WordNet. This morphs the word into its lemma, after which the word is checked for a match in the database of WordNet. This is done by running through all the specified POS databases defined in WordNet. If a match is found, the lemma of the word is returned, otherwise the original word is simply returned. Lastly, the methods allowing access to WordNet initializes the JWNL API and shuts it down, respectively. The initializer() method gets an instance of the dictionary files and loads the morphological processor. If this method is not called, the program is not able to access the WordNet files. The method close() closes the dictionary files and shuts down the JWNL API. This method is not used in the program, since it would not make sense to uninstall the dictionary once it has been installed. It would only increase the total execution time. It has been implemented for good measure, should it be needed. Stemming[5] is the process of reducing an inflected or derived word to its base form. In other words all morphological deviations of a word are reduced to the same form, which makes comparison easier. The stemmed word is not necessarily returned to its morphological root, but a mutual stem. The morphological deviations of a word have different suffixes, but in essence describe the same. These different variants can therefore be merged into a distinct representative form. Thus a comparison of stemmed words turns up a higher relation for equivalent words. In addition storing becomes more effective. Words like observes, observed, observation, observationally should all be reduced to a mutual stem such as observe. PROPOSED SYSTEM Reverse dictionaries approach can provide significantly higher quality. The proposed a set of methods for building and querying a reverse dictionary. Reverse dictionary system is based on the notion that a phrase that conceptually describes a word should resemble the word’s actual definition, if not matching the exact words, then at least conceptually similar. Consider, for example, the following concept phrase: â€Å"talks a lot, but without much substance.† Based on such a phrase, a reverse dictionary should return words such as â€Å"gabby,† â€Å"chatty,† and â€Å"garrulous.† Forward mapping (standard dictionary): Intuitively, a forward mapping designates all the senses for a particular word phrase. This is expressed in terms of a forward map set (FMS). The FMS of a (word) phrase W, designated by F(W) is the set of (sense) phrases {S1, S2, . . . Sn } such that for each Sj à Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ F(Wi), (Wi à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Sj) à Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ D. For example, suppose that the term â€Å"jovial† is associated with various meanings, including â€Å"showing high-spirited merriment† and â€Å"pertaining† to the god Jove, or Jupiter.† Here, F (jovial) would contain both of these phrases. Reverse mapping (reverse dictionary): Reverse mapping applies to terms and is expressed as a reverse map set (RMS). The RMS of t, denoted R(t), is a set of phrases { P1, P2, Pi,†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦, Pm}, such that à ¯Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢Pi à ¯Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Ãƒ ¯Ã†â€™Ã… ½ R(t), t à ¯Ã†â€™Ã… ½ F(Pi). Intuitively, the reverse map set of a term t consists of all the (word) phrases in whose definition t appears. The find candidate words phase consists of two key sub steps: 1) Build the RMS. 2) Query the RMS. A. COMPONENTS The first preprocessing step is to PoS tag the corpus. The PoS tagger relies on the text structure and morphological differences to determine the appropriate part-of-speech. For this reason, if it is required, PoS tagging is the first step to be carried out. After this, stopword removal is performed, followed by stemming. This order is chosen to reduce the amount of words to be stemmed. The stemmed words are then looked up in WordNet and their corresponding synonyms and hypernyms are added to the bag-of-words. Once the document vectors are completed in this way, the frequency of each word across the corpus can be counted and every word occurring less often than the pre specified threshold is pruned. Stemming, stopword removal and pruning all aim to improve clustering quality by removing noise, i.e. meaningless data. They all lead to a reduction in the number of dimensions in the term-space. Weighting is concerned with the estimation of the importance of individual terms. All of these have been used extensively and are considered the baseline for comparison in this work. However, the two techniques under investigation both add data to the representation. a PoS tagging adds syntactic information and WordNet is used to add synonyms and hypernyms. B. BUILDING REVERSE MAPPING SETS The input phrases sentence is split into words and then removes the stop words ( a, be, person, some, someone, too, very, who, the, in, of, and, to) if any appears, and find other words, which is having same meaning from the forward dictionary data sources. Given the large size of dictionaries, creating such mappings on the fly is infeasible. Thus, Procreate these Rs for every relevant term in the dictionary. This is a one time, offline event; once these mappings exist, we can use them for ongoing lookup. Thus, the cost of creating the corpus has no effect on runtime performance. For an input dictionary D, we create R mappings for all terms appearing in the sense phrases (definitions) in D. C. RMS QUERY This module responds to user input phrases. Upon receiving such an input phrase, we query the R indexes already present in the database to find candidate words whose definitions have any similarity to the input phrase. Upon receiving an input phrase U, we process U using a stepwise refinement approach. We start off by extracting the core terms from U, and searching for the candidate words (Ws) whose definitions contain these core terms exactly. (Note that we tune these terms slightly to increase the probability of generating Ws) If this first step does not generate a sufficient number of output Ws, defined by a tuneable input parameter ÃŽ ±, which represents the minimum number of word phrases needed to halt processing and return output. D. CANDIDATE WORD RANKING In this module sorts a set of output Ws in order of decreasing similarity to U, based on the semantic similarity. To build such a ranking, we need to be able to assign a similarity measure for each (S,U) pair, where U is the user input phrase and S is a definition for some W in the candidate word set O. Wn and Palmer’s Conceptual similarity, WUP Similarity between concepts a and b in a hierarchy, Here depth(lso(a,b)) is the global depth of the lowest super ordinate of a and b and len(a,b) is the length of the path between the nodes a and b in the hierarchy SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE We now describe our implementation architecture, with particular attention to design for scalability. The Reverse Dictionary Application (RDA) is a software module that takes a user phrase (U) as input, and returns a set of conceptually related words as output. Figure 1. Architecture of reverse dictionary. The user input phrase, split the word from the input phrase, perform the stemming. Predict every relevant term in the forward dictionary data source. In the generate query. input phrase, minimum and maximum output thresholds as input, then removal of level 1 stop words ( a, be, person, some, someone, too, very, who, the, in, of, and, to) and perform stemming, generate the query.Execute the query find the set of candidate words. Finally sort the result based on the semantic similarity EXPERIMENTAL ENVIRONMENT Our experimental environment consisted of two 2.2 GHz dual-core CPU, 2 GB RAM servers running Windows XP pro and above. On one server, we installed our implementation our algorithms (written in Java). The other server housed is wordnet dictionary data. CONCLUSION We describe the many challenges inherent in building a reverse lexicon, and map drawback to the well-known abstract similarity problem. We tend to propose a collection of strategies for building and querying a reverse lexicon, and describe a collection of experiments that show the standard of our results, similarly because the runtime performance underneath load. Our experimental results show that our approach will give important enhancements in performance scale while not sacrificing answer quality. The higher quality input phrase to driven reverse dictionary. Unlike a traditional forward dictionary, which maps from words to their definitions, a reverse dictionary takes a user input phrase describing the desired concept, it reduce the well-known conceptual similarity problem. The set of methods building a reverse mapping querying a reverse dictionary and it produces the higher quality of results. This approach can provide significant improvements in performance scale without sacrificing solution quality but for larger query it is fairly slow. REFERENCES T. Dao and T. Simpson, â€Å"Measuring Similarity between Sentences,† 2009. http://opensvn.csie.org/WordNetDotNet/trunk/ Projects/ T. Hofmann, â€Å"Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing,† SIGIR ’99: Proc. 22nd Ann. Int’l ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 50-57, 1999. D. Lin, â€Å"An Information-Theoretic Definition of Similarity,† Proc .Int’l Conf. Machine Learning, 1998. M. Porter, â€Å"The Porter Stemming Algorithm,†http://tartarus.org/martin/PorterStemmer/ , 2009. G. Miller, C. Fellbaum, R. Tengi, P. Wakefield, and H. Langone, â€Å"Wordnet Lexical Database,† http://wordnet.princeton.edu/wordnet/download/, 2009. P. Resnik, â€Å"Semantic Similarity in a Taxonomy: An Information-Based Measure and Its Application to Problems of Ambiguity in Natural Language,† J. Artificial Intelligence Research, vol. 11, pp. 95- 130, 1999. AUTHORS PROFILE E Kamalanathan is pursuing his Master of Engineering (part time ) from Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SCSVMV University Enathur,

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The First Amendment and the Fight Against God Essay -- Argumentative

The First Amendment and the Fight Against God On September 11, 2001, our nation experiences a terrible tragedy when four terrorist-controlled airplanes flew into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania. Over 3,000 people were killed, and thousands more were affected. In an effort to promote patriotism and unite the nation, citizens began displaying American flags, holding memorial services, and attending church. County High School also made an effort to bring together its students and faculty. A number of candlelight vigils were held, and students made posters and signs to display their patriotic feelings. One of these sings was a large banner hung right inside the front door. Red, white, and blue lettering displayed the phrase, ‘In God We Trust.’ This sign was met with mixed feelings. While many students were comforted by this display of patriotism, others took a very opposite stand. Less than 24 hours after the banner was raised, there were students rallying for it to be taken down, complaining to the principal, and arguing against it in class and at lunch. The upset students claimed it was offensive to atheists, agnostics, Muslims, Buddhists, and anyone else not North American Christian. Ironically, the majority of the students who complained weren’t actually members of any of these religions and the students who were generally took no offense to it. Personally, I found the students’ attempts to remove the sign offensive, not the sign itself. The sign was not displayed to recruit and convert students to Christianity, nor was it intended to preach to non-believers. It was a patriotic symbol; a reminder of our founding fathers’ ideals and hop... ...a misguided retreat from the First Amendment we are allowing those views to stifle our emotions, restrict legitimate expressions of faith, and disrupt our unity. Works Cited Amendments to the Constitution. U.S. House of Representatives. 22 September 2003 . Facts Sheets: Currency & Coins. History of ‘In God We Trust’. United States Department of the Treasury. 23 September 2003 . Renstrom, Peter G. Constitutional Rights Sourcebook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1999. The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription. The National Archives Experience. 23 September 2003 . The New American Bible. Washington D.C.: World Bible Publishers, Inc. 1970.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Essay --

â€Å"There’s no magic bullet; there’s no pill that you take that makes everything great and makes you happy all the time. I’m letting go of those expectations, and that’s opening me up to moments of transcendent bliss. But I still feel the stress over ‘Am I thin enough? Am I too thin? Is my body the right shape?† –Anne Hathaway. It seems as if every young girl’s desire is to become a model. Eating disorders affect an increasingly large number of people, especially young women, in today’s modern societies. One study even found that some girls are more afraid of being fat, than of a nuclear war or getting cancer. The most common types of this disorder are anorexia, bulimia, and purging, each having a discrete effect on different people. Right now, one percent of all American women- our sisters, mothers, and daughters, are starving themselves to death. â€Å"I will not eat cakes or cookies or food. I will be thin, thin, pure. I will be pure and empty. Weight dropping off. Ninety-nine... ninety-five... ninety-two... ninety. Just one more to eighty-nine. Where does it go? Where in the universe does it go?†-Francesca Lia Block. Anorexia nervosa is a serious potentially life threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss. 90-95% of anorexia sufferers are girls and women. It is one of the main psychiatric diagnoses and is the third most common chronic illness among adolescents. We believe that we have to be a certain weight and ideal beauty in America; it’s pretty much the main priority for teens and college students. Anorexia is mainly caused by a low self-esteem, stress, and cultural influence. Intense fear of gaining weight, loss of menstrual period, denial of food, and excessive workout are only a han... ...ological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. Many individuals with bulimia, anorexia, or binge eating disorder, do not seek help until they reach their thirties or forties when their eating is deeply ingrained and more difficult to change. Bulimia is often treated more successfully that anorexia, partly because bulimia patients usually want to be treated. Aside from interpersonal issues, such as depression and OCD, eating disorders are strongly provoked by television, electronic devices, and in some cases because of the influences presented by one's parents or friends. Many are unaware of the harm media causes toward its targeted audience. Overall, the media has completely taken over our lifestyle and continues to gain more control every day. Eating disorders don’t belong to a specific face, race, or shape. Anybody can fall victim to these sicknesses.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Antoni Gaudi – Essay

Antoni Gaudi One of Spain’s most internationally recognized architects, Antonio Gaudi has left his mark throughout Barcelona and Catalonia. His whimsical vision and imaginative designs have brought a bit of magic to this historic region. Gaudi? s culmination of traditional elements with fanciful ornamentation and brilliant technical solutions paved the way for future architects to step outside the box. Born in Reus, Catalonia in 1852, Gaudi was the first in over four generations to leave the family tradition of metal working. As a child, Antonio never excelled in school. He suffered from arthritis, which kept his attendance low, and preferred to spend his time observing plants and animals, as well as studying forms in nature, which would eventually be so prominent in his designs. It was also during his early years studying with the Escolapius Fathers that Gaudi recognized the â€Å"value of the divine history of the salvation of man through Christ incarnate, given to the world by the Virgin Mary. † He later incorporated such beliefs into his greatest work, The Sagrada Familia. Around 1870 Gaudi moved to Barcelona to study architecture at the Provincial School of Architecture. His grades were again less than superior. However, the young student did earn special recognition in the areas of Trial Drawings and Projects, which allowed him to put his outlandish ideas to use. His professor proclaimed that what had been produced in these two courses was either the work of an insane man or a genius. In 1878 Antoni Gaudi was one of only four students to be granted the title of Architect by the school? s director. At a time of cultural and political renaissance in Europe, Gaudi looked to many sources of inspiration for his work. Medieval books, Gothic art, Oriental structures, the Art Nouveau movement, and, of course, the glory of nature, strongly influenced his designs. His deep love of music, as well as his interest in writers such as John Ruskin, who said that â€Å"ornament is the origin of architecture,† also played a roll in the development of Gaudi? s unmistakable style. After graduating, Gaudi found comfort in the flourishing city life of turn-of-the century Barcelona. Numerous doors were opened for him among the bourgeoisie, artists, and intellectuals of the time. The young architect had a reputation for dressing in the latest fashion, and surrounding himself by high society. However, Gaudi never forgot his working-class roots. His first major project as a professional architect was workers? housing in a factory, the Coopertiva Mataronese, which was intended to improve the workers? quality of life. Gaudi presented his design at the Paris World Fair in 1878. It was there that he met Eusebi Guell, the man who would become one of the artist’s closest friends and most loyal patrons. In the following years, with rapidly growing interest in his work, Gaudi took on many important projects. Among them was the house built for the wealthy ceramic manufacturer, Manuel Vicens, as well as â€Å"El Capricho,† a villa for the brother-in-law of the Marquee of Comillas. Soon after, Gaudi began designing a palace for his good friend Guell (Palau Guell), and then later the two collaborated on Park Guell, which was intended to be a garden city. Gaudi, however, is most recognized for his work on â€Å"La Sagrada Familia,† a twentieth century cathedral in Barcelona. Gaudi took over the project in 1884 after a disagreement between a member of the Temple Council and the original project manager, Fracisco de Paula del Villar (Gaudi’s former professor), over materials. Antonio Gaudi was a mere 31 years of age when he officially gained control over the building. The architect devoted the next forty-two years of his life to its construction, until his sudden death at age 74 in 1926.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Women In Science Essay

I have only had two significant experiences with science, the Energy Academy and Physics class. Both experiences have changed my point of view in science forever. One encouraged it while the other made me utterly afraid of it. Both of them with the same teacher but with two different outcomes. I have also have encountered science at the California Science Center in Los Angles. First will talk about my experience with science with Academy.Before I joined Academy never even thought about joining the field of science and genealogy, but as I learned more about science and technology began to find it very interesting. We visited and talked to professionals in the field of energy science and I could not help but like it a lot. Think Independence high school has made a great decision about creating the Academy program, because now know that am interested in this field of science. I loved how Mrs.. Wolf was dedicated to the Academy and how she made sure that every student would succeed.I bel ieve that every student in the Energy Academy ins a lot of knowledge about science and technology. My second experience was with my sophomore year Physics class. I dreaded that class, because I rarely understood what was happening. I would go to class understand what she taught, but when a test came would not understand a single problem. Still got a good grade in the class, but struggled a lot, so decided never want to go in to a job that uses physics. It was not my teacher's fault that I did not understand the subject, I just did not comprehend it at all.When I was a kid my school went to go visit the California Science Center, at the time lived in San Fernando Valley. I went to a magnet school with peers that were under privileged, including me as well. None of us have gone to places like the Science Center, and when we saw it we all thought it was the most magical place ever. The most memorable exhibit was the giant imitation human and side kick cartoon that talked about human or gans. I thought it was the most amazing thing ever, and the thing that interested me he most was that how every single part of the body needed each other to survive.The imitation and cartoon made me realize how was interested in the field of science, and as I grew up I became interested in the field of psychology. It is funny to think that I have based my entire future career based on what a giant imitation human and cartoon taught me about the human body when I was in the first grade, but still think that because of them.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Health Care Physicians In Kuwait Health And Social Care Essay

Introduction: Domestic force against adult females is an of import public wellness job. The medical practician ‘s personal value system and beliefs about domestic force can play an of import function to cover with job and supply support to battered adult females. Aim: The current survey was formulated to uncover attitude of doctors towards domestic force against adult females and factors impacting this attitude. Methods: To accomplish such purposes, a sample of 565 doctors were interviewed out of 899 doctors selected for this survey with an overall response rate of 62.8 % . The mark population for this survey was all doctors in the primary wellness attention centres in Kuwait. Consequences: The consequences of the current survey revealed that doctors tended to hold a comparatively low positive overall attitude mark towards force against adult females ( 60.75 + 13.16 % ) , with a average per centum mark of 42.36 + 15.37 % for relationship between spouses domain, 75.73 + 21.80 % for good grounds to hit married womans domain, and 58.39 + 17.11 % for direction of domestic force sphere. Female doctors tended to hold a higher positive attitude mark than males ( 62.9 + 13.36 % compared with 58.3 + 12.52 % , P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) every bit good as for each attitude sphere. Years spent at the current occupation negatively correlated with the entire attitude mark of doctors towards domestic force against adult females. Decision: There is a great demand to better attitude of doctors about domestic force, particularly against adult females through decently planned preparation plans so that a better medical attention and support of beat-up adult females can be achieved. Cardinal words: Domestic – force – Women – Physicians-AttitudeIntroductionGender-based force is widely recognized as an of import public wellness job, both because of the acute morbidity and mortality associated with assault and its longer-term impact on adult females ‘s wellness, including chronic hurting, gynecologic jobs, sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, post-traumatic emphasis upsets, and self-destruction. ( 1-3 ) Abused adult females who have hapless physical and mental wellness suffer more hurts and utilize more medical resources than non-abused adult females. ( 1,2,4 ) Health attention establishments can do important parts to turn toing force against adult females by back uping both doctors and victims. ( 3 ) Health attention workers can play an indispensable function to cover with this wellness job through proper direction of beat-up adult females and supplying full support. However, wellness attention workers might portion the same cultural norms and biass with victims or culprits of interpersonal force, which would impact their professional attitudes. Furthermore, some doctors might believe that interpersonal force is a private household affair and non a wellness issue. In add-on, while the happenings allocated to this field are unequal, some wellness attention workers might experience despairing, taking them to professional reluctance. ( 4-6 ) Thus the following survey was formulated to accomplish the undermentioned aims: Estimate attitude of doctors towards domestic force ( DV ) against adult females and Reveal factors impacting attitude of do ctors about domestic force against adult females.MethodsAn experimental cross-sectional survey design was adopted for this survey. The survey was carried out in the primary wellness attention centres in Kuwait. All doctors available during the field work of the survey in the primary wellness attention centres were the mark population of this survey. A sum of 78 wellness centres are distributed over five wellness territories in Kuwait. The entire figure of doctors was 899 ; out of these, merely 565 agreed to portion in the survey with a response rate of 62.8 % . The survey covered the period January to August 2010. Data were collected over three months get downing from the May to July, 2010. Datas of this survey was collected through a specially designed self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire consisted of several subdivisions. The first subdivision dealt with socio-demographic features, including age, sex, figure of old ages in pattern, educational making, current occupation, old ages at current work and wage. Three inquiries dealt with prevalence of force ; one in Kuwait, one in other Arab states and the last one dealt with prevalence overall the universe. The attitude graduated table consisted of 18 inquiries covering three sub-domains. The first sub-domain dealt with the relationship between spouses and consisted of 6 inquiries, while the 2nd sub-domain the hitting married womans by their hubbies and formed of 8 inquiries, the last sub-domain dealt with direction of DV and consisted of three inquiries. The causes of DV consisted of 14 inquiries ; of these five covered the single features of culprit, two covered the relationship, three dealt with the commu nity factors, and 4 inquiries reflected the social factors including traditions, civilization and wonts. Another subdivision of the interviewing questionnaire covered the expected result of domestic force. This portion consisted of 34 inquiries classified as follows: physical wellness ( 6 inquiries ) , chronic conditions ( 5 inquiries ) , mental wellness ( 8 inquiries ) , negative wellness behaviour ( 5 inquiries ) , generative wellness ( 7 inquiries ) , and fatal result ( 3 inquiries ) . A pilot survey was carried out on 30 doctors ( non included in the concluding survey ) . This survey was formulated with the following aims: prove the lucidity, pertinence of the survey tools, accommodate the purpose of the work to existent feasibleness, place the troubles that may be faced during the application, every bit good as survey all the processs and activities of the administrative facets. Besides, the clip of finishing the questionnaire was estimated during this pilot survey to be 10 proceedingss. The necessary alterations harmonizing to the consequences obtained were done, so some statements were reworded. Besides, the construction of the questionnaire sheet was reformatted to ease informations aggregation. A pre-coded sheet was used. All inquiries were coded before informations aggregation. This facilitates both informations entry and confirmation every bit good as reduces the chance of mistakes during informations entry. Datas were fed to the computing machine straight from the questionnaire without an intermediate informations transportation sheets. The Excel plan was used for informations entry. A file for informations entry was prepared and structured harmonizing to the variables in the questionnaire. After informations were fed to the Excel plan ; several methods were used to verify informations entry. These methods included the followers: simple frequence, cross-tabulation, every bit good as manual alteration of entered informations. Percentage mark was calculated for the entire attitude mark every bit good as for each sphere of attitude. Before ciphering the amount of mark ; the mark of negative inquiries was reversed. The per centum mark was calculated as follows: amount of mar k X 100 / figure of points. The amount was treated to give a scope of 100 % with a lower limit of nothing and a upper limit of 100.Statistical analysis:Before analysis ; informations were imported to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) which was used for both informations analysis and tabular presentation. Descriptive ( count, per centum, lower limit, upper limit, arithmetic mean, average and standard divergence ) and analytic steps ( Mann Whitney Z trial and Spearman correlativity coefficient ) were utilized. The degree of significance selected for this survey was P ? 0.05. All the necessary blessings for transporting out the research were obtained. The Ethical Committee of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Health approved the research. A written format explicating the intent of the research was prepared and signed by the doctor before get downing the interview. In add-on, the intent and importance of the research were discussed with the manager of the wellness centre.ConsequenceTable I portrays socio-demographic features of studied doctors. Females constituted 53.1 % of the studied sample while the remainder were males ( 46.9 % ) with an mean age of 39.95 + 9.07 old ages and an norm of 13.04 + 8.42 old ages at the current occupation. Kuwaiti doctors constituted 43.2 % of the entire sample while 51.5 % were other Arab doctors. The bulk were married ( 87.3 % ) while the remainder were presently individual ( 3.0 % divorced or widow and 9.7 % ne'er married before ) . Out of the entire sample, 89.2 % were working as a registrar, while the remainder ( 10.8 % ) were ei ther specializers or advisers. Those keeping a unmarried man grade constituted 31.7 % , while the bulk ( 68.3 % ) were keeping a higher educational certification. The wage for the bulk of doctors ( 82.1 % ) was more than 1000 KD. Table II shows perceptual experience of doctors about prevalence of DV against adult females in Kuwait, other Arab states and worldwide. Doctors tended to gauge lower prevalence of domestic force in Kuwait than other Arab states or worldwide as 43.8 % of them stated that domestic force against adult females is more than 20 % while 69 % and 58.8 % stated the same prevalence in other Arab states and worldwide severally. Table III demonstrates attitude of doctors towards DV against adult females. The highest average per centum mark ( 75.73 + 21.80 % ) was that for attitude sphere two covering with striking of married womans in different fortunes, followed by sphere three covering with proper direction of DV ( 58.39 + 17.11 % ) . Relationship between spouses ( domain one ) came on the underside of the list with a mean of 42.36 + 15.37 % . The overall attitude average per centum mark was 60.75 + 13.16 % with a average per centum mark of 61.1 % . Table IV shows the relationship between attitude towards DV and socio-demographic features of doctors. Female doctors tended to hold a significantly higher average per centum tonss than males for relationship sphere ( 45.1 + 15.53 compared with 39.3 + 14.62 % , P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) , hitting sphere ( 77.9 + 22.16 compared with 73.3 + 21.15 % , P = 0.001 ) , every bit good as the direction sphere ( 59.6 + 17.07 compared with 59.6 + 17.07 % , P = 0.044 ) . Overall, female doctors had a significantly higher attitude score than male doctors ( 62.9 + 13.36 compared with 58.3 + 12.52 % , P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) . Kuwaiti doctors had a significantly higher mark than non-Kuwaiti for the relationship sphere ( 44.4 + 15.31 compared with 40.8 + 15.26 % , P = 0.007 ) , while no important differences were noticed between them with respect to other spheres. Job of the doctor significantly impacted merely on hitting attitude sphere where specializer doctors had a higher average per centum mark ( 82.5 + 16.96 % ) than registrar doctors ( 74.9 + 22.19 % , P = 0.015 ) . Marital position and degree of instruction did non hold any important impact on the different spheres of doctors ‘ attitude towards DV against adult females. A negative correlativity was found between continuance at work in old ages from one side and the overall attitude mark on the other side, ( R = -0.115 ) . Table I: Socio-demographic features of doctorsFictional characterNumber%AgeMin-Max 24.0 – 65 Mean + SD 39.95 + 9.07Sexual activityMale 265 46.9 Female 300 53.1NationalityKuwaiti 244 43.2 Arab 291 51.5 Non Arab 30 5.3Marital positionSingle 55 9.7 Married 493 87.3 Divorced / Widowed 17 3.0QualificationBachelor grade 179 31.7 Master/PhD/Board 386 68.3OccupationRegistrar 504 89.2 Specialist 61 10.8Old ages at workMin-Max 0.1 – 40 Mean + SD 13.04 + 8.42Income ( KD )& A ; lt ; 1000 101 17.9 1000 – 239 42.3 & A ; gt ; 1500 225 39.8 Table II: Percept of doctors about prevalence of domestic force in Kuwait, Arab states and worldwide Prevalence of Domestic force& A ; lt ; 1 %1-5 %6-10 %11-20 %21-30 %& A ; gt ; 30 %Kuwait ( n=484 ) 11 ( 2.3 ) 31 ( 6.4 ) 94 ( 19.4 ) 136 ( 28.1 ) 115 ( 23.8 ) 97 ( 20.0 ) Other Arab states ( n=480 ) 5 ( 1.0 ) 12 ( 2.5 ) 47 ( 9.8 ) 85 ( 17.7 ) 180 ( 37.5 ) 151 ( 31.5 ) Worldwide ( n=469 ) 4 ( 0.9 ) 36 ( 7.7 ) 53 ( 11.3 ) 100 ( 21.3 ) 114 ( 24.3 ) 162 ( 34.5 ) Datas are presented as figure ( % ) Table Three: Attitude of doctors towards domestic forceAttitude sphereStronglydisagreeDisagreeImpersonalAgreeStrongly holdRelationship between spouses ( A1 )A good married woman obeys her hubby even if she disagrees 32 ( 5.7 ) 92 ( 16.3 ) 134 ( 23.7 ) 201 ( 35.6 ) 106 ( 18.8 ) Family jobs should merely be discussed with people in the household 15 ( 2.7 ) 57 ( 10.1 ) 70 ( 12.4 ) 232 ( 41.1 ) 191 ( 33.8 ) It is of import for a adult male to demo his married woman who is the foreman 38 ( 6.7 ) 88 ( 15.6 ) 103 ( 18.2 ) 225 ( 39.8 ) 111 ( 19.6 ) A adult female should be able to take her ain friends even if her hubby disagrees 75 ( 13.3 ) 177 ( 31.3 ) 141 ( 25.0 ) 119 ( 21.1 ) 53 ( 9.4 ) It is a married woman ‘s duty to hold sex with her hubby even if she does non experience like it 102 ( 18.1 ) 154 ( 27.3 ) 147 ( 26.0 ) 114 ( 20.2 ) 48 ( 8.5 ) If a adult male mistreats his married woman, others outside of the household should step in 108 ( 19.1 ) 118 ( 20.9 ) 103 ( 18.2 ) 153 ( 27.1 ) 83 ( 14.7 ) ( Min – Max ) Mean + SD [ Median ] ( 0.0 – 87.5 ) 42.36 + 15.37 [ 41.7 ]A adult male have a good ground to hit his married woman if ( A2 ) :She does non finish her family work to his satisfaction 367 ( 65.0 ) 147 ( 26.0 ) 22 ( 3.9 ) 15 ( 2.7 ) 14 ( 2.5 ) She disobeys him 266 ( 47.1 ) 175 ( 31.0 ) 53 ( 9.4 ) 44 ( 7.8 ) 27 ( 4.8 ) She refuse to hold sexual relation with him 316 ( 55.9 ) 164 ( 29.0 ) 51 ( 9.0 ) 14 ( 2.5 ) 20 ( 3.5 ) She asks him whether he has other miss friends 331 ( 58.6 ) 159 ( 28.1 ) 45 ( 8.0 ) 16 ( 2.8 ) 14 ( 2.5 ) He suspects that she is unfaithful 274 ( 48.5 ) 170 ( 30.1 ) 72 ( 12.7 ) 29 ( 5.1 ) 20 ( 3.5 ) He finds out that she has been unfaithful 183 ( 32.4 ) 91 ( 16.1 ) 79 ( 14.0 ) 130 ( 23.0 ) 82 ( 14.5 ) She exposes hubby failings 237 ( 41.9 ) 137 ( 24.2 ) 86 ( 15.2 ) 61 ( 10.8 ) 44 ( 7.8 ) She lies to her hubby 210 ( 37.2 ) 154 ( 27.3 ) 87 ( 15.4 ) 66 ( 11.7 ) 48 ( 8.5 ) ( Min – Max ) Mean + SD [ Median ] ( 0.0 – 100.0 ) 75.73 + 21.80 [ 78.1 ]direction of domestic force ( A3 )Womans who experienced physical force must take professional aid 9 ( 1.6 ) 16 ( 2.8 ) 32 ( 5.7 ) 283 ( 50.1 ) 225 ( 39.8 ) Health professionals can non assist domestic force victims, as they will return to the same societal environment 75 ( 13.3 ) 161 ( 28.5 ) 92 ( 16.3 ) 152 ( 26.9 ) 85 ( 15.0 ) Domestic force is a private issue, and patients are ashamed to speak about it 36 ( 6.4 ) 80 ( 14.2 ) 60 ( 10.6 ) 281 ( 49.7 ) 108 ( 19.1 ) Covering with domestic force agencies interfering with privateness of the household 155 ( 27.4 ) 233 ( 41.2 ) 86 ( 15.2 ) 55 ( 9.7 ) 36 ( 6.4 ) ( Min – Max ) Mean + SD [ Median ] ( 6.3 – 100.0 ) 58.39 + 17.11 [ 56.3 ] ( A ) Entire Attitude Score ( Min – Max ) Mean + SD [ Median ] ( 18.1 – 91.7 ) 60.75 + 13.16 [ 61.1 ] Datas are presented as figure ( natural % ) Table Four: Relation between attitude sphere tonss ( average + SD ) and socio-demographic features of doctorsCharacteristicAttitude DomainEntire mark( A )Relationship( A1 )Hiting( A2 )Management ( A3 )Sexual activityMale 39.3 + 14.6 73.3 + 21.2 56.9 + 17.1 58.3 + 12.5 Female 45.1 + 15.5 77.9 + 22.2 59.6 + 17.1 62.9 + 13.4 Phosphorus & A ; lt ; 0.001* 0.001* 0.044* & A ; lt ; 0.001*NationalityKuwaiti 44.4 + 15.3 76.4 + 21.7 59.5 + 16.3 61.9 + 13.3 Non Kuwaiti 40.8 + 15.3 75.2 + 21. 9 57.5 + 17.7 59.8 + 13.0 Phosphorus 0.007* 0.540 0.0501 0.060Marital StatusSingle 42.3 + 15.5 75.5 + 22.7 59.2 + 18.3 60.8 + 13.62 Married 42.4 + 15.4 75.8 + 21.7 58.3 + 16.9 60.7 + 13.11 Phosphorus 0.899 0.991 0.659 0.871EducationBachelor 41.4 + 13.4 77.5 + 21.6 57.9 + 16.3 61.1 + 12.10 Higher 42.8 + 16.2 74.9 + 21.9 58.6 + 17.5 60.6 + 13.64 Phosphorus 0.378 0.169 0.769 0.712OccupationRegistrar 42.3 + 15.3 74.9 + 22.2 58.1 + 17.4 60.3 + 13.3 Specialist 43.1 + 16.1 82.5 + 17.0 60.6 + 14.3 64.5 + 11.6 Phosphorus 0.695 0.015* 0.172 0.034*Age ( R )-0.065 -0.019 -0.040 -0.053Old ages at work ( R )-0.054 -0.106* -0.043 -0.115* * Significant, P & A ; lt ; 0.05. R = Spearman correlativity coefficientDiscussionDV is a major societal and medical job. It occurs in all states irrespective of societal, economic, cultural or spiritual values. Battered adult females seek aid in the wellness attention installations due to both physical and psychological harm that they suffer due to the force they experience. ( 7,8 ) The medical practicians ‘ personal value system and beliefs about DV can play an of import function. A survey in an exigency section in Hong Kong reported that the physicians found it hard to optimally pull off victims of DV because of the belief in the importance of keeping household integrity and that DV is a private issue. ( 9 ) Fewer physicians were found to test for DV believing that intercession is less successful than for other behavioral hazards such as smoke. ( 10 ) It seems that a positive attitude towards DV can play a important function for both diagnosis and pull offing medical results of force. Thus the current research was formulated to uncover attitude of primary wellness attention physicians towards force against adult females and identify factors impacting spheres of attitude. To accomplish these aims ; 565 primary wellness attention doctors were interviewed utilizing a specially designed questionnaire. The consequences of this survey revealed that more than half the doctors were married ( 87.3 % ) , Non-Kuwait ( 56.8 % ) , females ( 53.1 % ) with an mean age of 39.95 + 9.07 old ages and spent 13.04 + 8.42 old ages, on the norm, at the current occupation. Doctors tended to describe lower prevalence of DV against adult females in Kuwait followed, while they stated high rates in the other Arab states with an intermediate figure for world-wide prevalence. Other surveies, besides revealed that consciousness of primary doctors about the prevalence of DV is hapless. ( 11-15 ) A multi-country survey carried out by WHO showed that 15 – 71 % of adult females experient physical and / or sexual force by an intimate spouse at some point in their lives. ( 16 ) Another survey carried out on American Indian adult females revealed a figure every bit high as 80 % . ( 8 ) The differences among these surveies might be attributed to the nature of the job itself as some adult females tend to hide the event and prefer non coverage. Besides, the disagreement in force definition every bit good as the adoptive attack for gauging force happening whether one-year or life clip happening might explicate the differences of domestic force prevalence among these surveies. The consequences of the current survey besides revealed that doctors tended to hold a comparatively low positive overall attitude mark towards force against adult females ( 60.75 + 13.16 % ) , with a average per centum mark of 42.36 + 15.37 % for relationship between spouses domain, 75.73 + 21.80 % for good grounds to hit married womans domain, and 58.39 + 17.11 % for direction of domestic force sphere. This low mark can be attributed to cultural and social values in eastern states, as doctors themselves are the merchandises of the current cultural tradition. ( 17 ) Besides, hapless cognition and deficient preparation can be behind this low positive attitude. ( 18-22 ) Absence of clear guidelines to cover with DV at the degree of the primary wellness attention centres and inaccessibility of specific intervention prescription can besides significantly lend to this low attitude. ( 23 ) Low attitude of primary wellness attention physicians towards DV can sabotage their abilities to name and decently manage battered adult females, particularly with respect to implementing suited intercession steps. Female doctors tended to hold a higher positive mark on all the studied attitude spheres. Female doctors were reported to province the most positive encouraging attitude towards DV against adult females when compared with male doctors. ( 24 ) Rose and Saunders suggested that female suppliers may hold more empathetic attitudes towards victims of interpersonal force. ( 25 ) Besides, there is an increasing research demoing that preventative attention services for females rendered by female professionals increases the acceptableness and efficiency of medical services. ( 26,27 ) Besides Kuwaiti doctors had a significantly higher positive attitude for relationship between spouses than the non-Kuwaiti doctors. Old ages spent at current work were significantly negatively correlated with striking of adult females sphere and the entire attitude mark, bespeaking that with addition in old ages at work there is an attach toing lessening in the specified attitude spheres. However, matrimonial posi tion and degree of instruction, and age did non demo any important relation with the attitude domains. Education did non turn out to alter the attitude toward domestic force. ( 28 ) Some surveies did non demo any important relationship between attitude toward interpersonal force from one side and business, old ages of employment, and matrimonial position on the other side. ( 24 ) Empathic and emotionally supportive behaviour of doctors will promote beat-up adult females to unwrap the force they suffered. This can ensue in supplying a high quality attention services and guarantee efficient use of the available resources to cover with force. Plans for preparation of doctors to beef up their cognition, attitude and pattern towards domestic force against adult females are needed in Kuwait to better the medical services administered to buffet adult females